b'JEWISH CALENDAR COMPANIONtimes during the next thousand years from the time of the Judges then the Kings until the destruction of the First Temple. The Prophets were constantly berating them for their straying after the foreign deities and reminding them that this would bring about their exile from the promised land.When the armies marched into Judea in the year 586BCE they had been in the Land of Israel for just over a thousand years.According to one source this happened on the 17th of Tammuz so that the memory of the golden calf was indeed visited on the childrenofIsraelandthebreach withthe Almightybroughta physical breach in the Sanctuary on the same day.When they returned seventy years later as promised they came back with the last of the pupils of the prophets and the first of the Rabbis Ezra the Scribe who brought the people back to G-d and re-educated them in the Torahs teaching. The new Beth Hamikdash was consecrated and the Divine Presence returned and the Temple rituals and sacrifices were re-enacted.The ages of the prophets had passed and with it the old time of idolatry although new cultural challenges would appear. Whilst in Babel the Jews had picked up Aramaic which as instituted by Darius became the spoken language among the Jews for the next thousand years. Then came the Greeks and Romans who again threatened the spiritual stability of our nation.Through many trials and tribulations the Temple stood and indeed in its last hundred years was made even more magnificent by Herod. For over six hundred years it was the great wonder of all the ancient world until on the fateful day once again the 17th of Tammuz the wicked Titus breached the walls again.This time we are told the Temple was destroyed because of which is the hatred between people without a good reason. This time there was no promise of a return after seventy years or even seven hundred years only when the Messiah will come.The Lord forgives us the trespasses against him but once we cannot behave civilly with each other our national spirit is broken and the Shechina can not dwell amongst us. It is for that reason we have to fast on the 17th of Tammuz to remember our social duties to each other for even the breaking of the Tablets did not cause the fast day to be declared.59'